Whilst the Empire of Nicaea had restored the Byzantine Empire through restoring control of the capital, it ended in 1453 with the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans. 1184 – 1212) was one of the founders of the Empire of Trebizond and its joint ruler together with his brother Alexios until his death. 1282 – 3 May 1330), was Emperor of Trebizond from 1297 to 1330. Chaldia had already shown its separatist tendencies in the 10th and 11th centuries, when it came under the control of a local leader named Theodore Gabras, who according to Anna Comnena regarded Trebizond and its hinterlands "as a prize which had fallen to his own lot" and conducted himself as an independent prince. Discussion that several authorities consider Alexios II's reign to be the height of Trapezuntine power. [18] This territory corresponds to an area comprising all or parts of the modern Turkish provinces of Sinop, Samsun, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Rize, and coastal parts of Artvin. "Narratives of the Fall: Structure and Meaning in the Genesis Frieze at Hagia Sophia, Trebizond". Although that effort came to nothing, this was the last rebel governor known to recorded history prior to the events of 1204. The document is also… …   Wikipedia, Komnene, daughter of Alexios I of Trebizond — Komnene was the wife of Andronikos I of Trebizond. A new attempt by the nobility on Alexios III failed in 1363. Two groups struggled for ascendency: the Scholaroi, who have been identified as being pro-Byzantine, and the Amytzantarantes, who were identified as representing the interests of the native archontes. The Empire of Trebizond also gained its reputation for superb diplomacy during this time. WikiMatrix He was the eldest son of Alexios I of Trebizond and a woman the primary sources do not identify; some writers have named her Theodora Axuchina. He was the son of Emperor Manuel III and Gulkhan Eudokia of… …   Wikipedia, Alexios I of Trebizond — Alexios I Megas Komnenos or Alexius I Comnenus (Greek: Αλέξιος Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios I Megas Komnēnos ; c. 1182 ndash; February 1, 1222) was Emperor of Trebizond from ruled 1204to 1222. Alexios II of Trebizond (2 December 1282-3 May 1330) was Emperor of Trebizond from 16 August 1297 to 3 May 1330, succeeding John II and preceding Andronikos III.. Karl von Hahn, Известия древних греческих и римских писателей о Кавказе, II, pp. As Alexios' position improved, it became less necessary to rely on the kingmaker Niketas. Alexios and Panaretos were barely able to escape with their lives. When Alexios III died on March 20 1390, he was succeeded by his son Manuel III. Karpov interprets the significance of this image and the inscription as portraying the most important achievement of his life, St. George inviting the victorious prince to enter Trebizond and opening the gates of the city with his left hand. [23] However some scholars believe that the new state was subject to Georgia, at least in the first years of its existence, at the beginning of the 13th century. Wikipedia Mehmed II eventually heard of these intrigues and was further provoked to action by David's demand that Mehmed remit the tribute imposed on his brother. The typikon of the Dionysiou is an object of artistic merit and beauty. The city of Trebizond was the capital of the theme of Chaldia, which according to the 10th century Arab geographer Abul Feda was regarded as being largely a Lazian port. The empire was formed in 1204 with the help of the Georgian queen Tamar after the Georgian expedition in Chaldia and Paphlagonia,[7] commanded by Alexios Komnenos a few weeks before the sack of Constantinople. FamilyShe was the… …   Wikipedia, Alexios Komnenos — Alexios Komnenos, latinized as Alexius Comnenus, may refer to: Alexios I Komnenos, Byzantine emperor (1081–1118) Alexios Komnenos (d. 1136), son of Isaac Komnenos Alexios Komnenos (co emperor), son of John II Komnenos Alexios Komnenos (son of… …   Wikipedia, Alexios V Doukas — Αλέξιος Ε’ Δούκας Emperor of the Byzantine Empire Alexios V, from an illuminated manuscript Reign 1204 …   Wikipedia, We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Miller, "Trebizond: The Last Greek Empire of the Byzantine Era", Chicago, 1926. He is perhaps the best-documented ruler of that country, and his reign is distinguished by a number of religious grants and literary creations. Another concession to Venice followed in 1367, and gradually lowered some of the dues levied on Venetian commerce. Alexios later declared himself Emperor and established himself in Trebizond (modern day Trabzon, Turkey). Alexios Komnenos was the son of Emperor John II of Trebizond, and he came under the care of his uncle, Andronicus II of Byzantium, before inheriting the throne of the Empire of Trebizond in 1297. A third one, the Empire of Trebizond was created a few weeks before the sack of Constantinople by Alexios I of Trebizond. Alexios was raised at the Byzantine court. For the time being, Alexios was accepted as emperor because of his youth, which proved acceptable to the nobles of the realm who sought to use the young ruler's minority for their own purposes. [40] Through Theodora and the daughter of Alexios IV of Trebizond (also named Theodora), the Safavid dynasty of Iran that succeeded the Ak Koyunlu, would be of direct partial Pontic Greek ethnicity from its very beginning. [40], Mehmed's response came in the summer of 1461. By his wife Theodora Kantakouzene, Alexios III had six children:* Basil (1358–1377)* Manuel III (1364–1417), Emperor 1390–1416* Eudokia, who married first Tajeddin, Emir of Limnia and then the Serbian prince Constantine Dragaš* Maria, who married Suleyman Beg, Emir of Chalybia, * Unnamed daughter, who married Mutahharten, Emir of Erzincan* Anna, who married King Bagrat V of Georgia, By an unnamed mistress, Alexios also had at least two illegitimate sons: * Andronikos (1355–1376), who married Gulkhan-Eudokia, daughter of King David IX of Georgia, but was murdered shortly after and Eudokia married his brother, Manuel III* John. Alexios II Megas Komnenos or Alexius II (Greek: Αλέξιος Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, "Alexios II Megas Komnēnos", Sept.-Dec. 1282–1330), was Emperor of Trebizond from 1297 to 1330. 1340 – after 1390) was the Empress consort of Alexios III of Trebizond. The Ottoman Sultan Murad II first attempted to take the capital by sea in 1442, but high surf made the landings difficult and the attempt was repulsed. [19], The city of Trebizond was the capital of the theme of Chaldia, which according to the 10th century Arab geographer Abul Feda was regarded as being largely a Lazian port. Komnene is the female form of Komnenos , her family name [ [http://www.thepeerage.com/p21911.htm#i219104 Peerage.com: unknown daughter Comnene ] ] . In November 1373, he sailed to Trebizond, where he tried to force the deposition of the Emperor of Trebizond, Alexios III. Trebizond enjoyed a period of wealth[34] and influence during the long reign of John's eldest son Alexios II (1297–1330). [33] Western travelers used Trebizond as their starting point for journeys into Asia; these travelers included Marco Polo, who returned to Europe in 1295 by way of Trebizond. An invasion by Hajji 'Umar, the emir of Chalybia, was neutralized by diplomacy, and he was married to Alexios' sister Theodora in 1358. He was the eldest son of Manuel Komnenos and of Rusudan …   Wikipedia, Alexios III — There have been two rulers called Alexios III:* Alexios III Angelos, Emperor of the Byzantine Empire * Alexios III Megas Komenos, Emperor of Trebizond …   Wikipedia, Manuel III of Trebizond — Manuel III Megas Komnenos (Greek: Μανουήλ Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Manouēl III Megas Komnēnos) (December 16, 1364 – March 5, 1417) was Emperor of Trebizond from March 20, 1390 to his death in 1417. However, Anthony Bryers has argued against thinking this empire was a wealthy polity, stating that while the income from taxes levied on this trade was "by Byzantine standards" substantial, as much as three quarters of the income of the Emperor came from land "either directly from the imperial estates or indirectly from taxes and tithes from other lands. Login with Gmail. [citation needed], Under the rule of Alexios III, Trebizond was considered an important trade center and was renowned for its great wealth and artistic accomplishment. Possibly the diocese of Cerasous was deactivated for the same reasons. [9][page needed] Thus from the point of view of the Byzantine writers connected with the Laskaris and later with the Palaiologos dynasties, the rulers of Trebizond were not emperors. Some authorities identify Taronites with the known son of Theodore Gabras. Niketas and his aristocratic supporters were taken captive and brought to Trebizond, where he died in 1360. *"The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium", Oxford University Press, 1991.*W. "[43] Donald Nicol echoes Runciman's observations: "Most of the emperors were blessed with a progeny of marriageable daughters, and the beauty of the ladies of Trebizond was as legendary as the wealth of their dowries. Alexios IV Megas Komnenos or Alexius IV (Αλέξιος Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, 1382–1429), Emperor of Trebizond from 5 March 1417 to October 1429. Alexios III Megas Komnenos (translit, 5 October 1338 – 20 March 1390), or Alexius III, was Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. He was the son of Emperor Alexios III of Trebizond by… …   Wikipedia, Andronikos III of Trebizond — Andronikos III Megas Komnenos or Andronicus III (Greek: Ανδρόνικος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Andronikos III Megas Komnēnos ), (c. 1310 ndash; 1332) Emperor of Trebizond from 1330 to 1332. [45], In Italian, there exists the expression "to lose the Trebizond" (perdere la Trebisonda) which means "to be bewildered". David intrigued with various European powers for help against the Ottomans, speaking of wild schemes that included the conquest of Jerusalem. 205–210. Mother. Alexios and his court strengthened their position by fostering peaceful relations with the Turkmen, cemented by marriage alliances such as that between the emperor's sister Maria and Fahreddin Kutlubeg of Aq Qoyunlu. Due to its natural harbours, defensible topography and access to silver and copper mines, Trebizond became the pre-eminent Greek colony on the eastern Black Sea shore soon after its founding. Alexios III Megas Komnenos (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, romanized: Alexios III Megas Komnēnos, 5 October 1338 – 20 March 1390), or Alexius III, was Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. Alexios III was originally named John (Ιωάννης, "Iōannēs"), and took the name Alexios either in memory of his older brother who had died prematurely or of his paternal grandfather, Emperor Alexios II of Trebizond. In the centuries before the founding of the empire the city had been under control of the local Gabras family, which – while officially still remaining part of the Byzantine Empire – minted its own coin. During his reign, the city of Erzurum was also under Trebizond Empire occupation for a while around the 1310s. His accomplishments included capturing Sinope in 1254. Trapezuntine diplomats fostered close relations with the Byzantines and the White Sheep, a major nomadic Turkish confederacy bordering the empire. "[44] Its wealth and exotic location endowed a lingering fame on the polity. David Komnenos, the younger brother of the first Emperor, expanded rapidly to the west, occupying first Sinope, then coastal parts of Paphlagonia (the modern-day coastal regions of Kastamonu, Bartın, and Zonguldak) and Heraclea Pontica (the modern-day Karadeniz Ereğli), until his territory bordered the Empire of Nicaea. The position of Venice had declined from the concession of Leontokastron to the Genoese in 1349, and in 1360 Alexios attempted to restore commercial relations with Venice to offset the power of the Genoese. 1282 – 3 May 1330), was Emperor of Trebizond from 1297 to 1330. The Turks took advantage of the weakness of the empire, conquering Oinaion and besieging Trebizond, while the Genoese seized Kerasus. Alexios III Megas Komnenos or Alexius III (Greek: Αλέξιος Γ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Alexios III Megas Komnēnos, 5 October 1338 – 20 March 1390), Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. [27], The date Alexios entered Trebizond may be narrowed down even further. When he was eleven years old, he was sent to Trebizond by Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos to replace his deposed great-uncle Michael, who had been an instrument of the regency Kantakouzenos had displaced. Alexios IV Megas Komnenos or Alexius IV ( Greek: Αλέξιος Δ΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, romanized : Alexios IV Megas Komnēnos, 1382–1429), Emperor of Trebizond from 5 March 1417 to October 1429. Geographically, the Empire of Trebizond consisted of the narrow strip along the southern coast of the Black Sea and the western half of the Pontic Alps, along with the Gazarian Perateia, or southern Crimea (soon losing to Genoese Gazaria and Theodorite Gazaria). His son Alexios IV (1417–1429) continued the tradition of political marriages by marrying two of his daughters to rulers of two neighboring Muslim empires: Jihan Shah, khan of the Kara Koyunlu, and Ali Beg, khan of the Ak Koyunlu. All three dioceses survived the Ottoman conquest (1461) and generally operated until the 17th century, when the dioceses of Cerasous and Rizaion were abolished. The Byzantine E… Bryer, "The Estates of the Empire of Trebizond. 49 relations. The Empire of Trebizond or Trapezuntine Empire was a monarchy and one of three successor rump states of the Byzantine Empire that flourished during the 13th through 15th centuries, consisting of the far northeastern corner of Anatolia (the Pontus) and the southern Crimea. He is perhaps the best-documented ruler of that country, and his reign is distinguished by a number of religious grants and literary creations. Vasiliev explains that she had been motivated to do so after the Emperor Alexios III Angelos stole the gifts Tamar had given to a group of visiting monks as they passed through Constantinople. He was the son of Emperor Manuel III and Gulkhan-Eudokia of Georgia . Although their expansion was temporarily checked by Tamerlane at the Battle of Ankara in 1402, by the 1430s the Ottomans had recovered their fortunes, seizing large segments of Greece and finally capturing Constantinople itself on 29 May 1453. Alexios arrived in Trebizond on December 22, 1349 and was accepted as emperor by the nobility headed by Grand Duke Niketas without opposition. "[28], Vasiliev points out that the brothers occupied Trebizond too early to have done so in response to the Crusaders capturing Constantinople; Alexios and David began their march on Trebizond before news of the sack of Constantinople on 13 April 1204 could reach either Trebizond or Georgia. Cervantes described the eponymous hero of his Don Quixote as "imagining himself for the valour of his arm already crowned at least Emperor of Trebizond." The diocese of Rizaion and the bishopric of Of were abolished at the time due to the Islamisation of the Laz and of the region respectively. Sergey Karpov has identified a lead seal of Alexios, on one side "the image of a strategos in the peaked helmet led by hand by St. George" with the inscriptions Ἀλέξιος ὁ Κομνηνός [Alexios Komnenos] and Ὁ Ἅ(γιος) Γεώργιος [Saint George] on either side; on the obverse is a scene of Ἡ Ἁγία Ἀνάστασις [The Holy Resurrection] with the corresponding inscription. Perhaps the best-documented ruler of that country, and his reign is distinguished by a number of religious grants and literary creations. Εξετάστε τα παραδείγματα μετάφρασης του "Alexios III of Trebizond" σε προτάσεις, ακούστε την προφορά και μάθετε τη γραμματική. The later Byzantine emperors, as well as Byzantine authors, such as George Pachymeres, Nicephorus Gregoras and to some extent Trapezuntines such as John Lazaropoulos and Basilios Bessarion, regarded the emperors of Trebizond as the "princes of the Lazes", while the possession of these "princes" was also called Lazica,[8] in other words, their state was known as the Principality of the Lazes. [10][page needed][11][page needed], After the crusaders of the Fourth Crusade overthrew Alexios V and established the Latin Empire, the Empire of Trebizond became one of three Byzantine successor states to claim the imperial throne, alongside the Empire of Nicaea under the Laskaris family and the Despotate of Epirus under a branch of the Angelos family. 243–245, Hewsen, "Armenians on the Black Sea", p. 48. "So I dared to assume," writes Karpov, "that the seal points out the date of the capture of Trebizond. Despite the Nicaean reconquest of Constantinople, the Emperors of Trebizond continued to style themselves as "Roman Emperors" for two decades and continued to press their claim on the Imperial throne. The rebels realized that they would be unable to win and abandoned their expedition. Andronikos I had been deposed by Isaac II Angelos, while Manuel was blinded (a traditional Byzantine punishment for treason) and died not long after. Emperor of Trebizond from December 1349 until his death. [24] While Michel Kurskanskis has argued in support of Vasiliev's interpretation, he disagrees with Vasiliev over the intent of Tamar's intervention: Vasiliev has argued that the Queen intended to create a buffer state to protect the Georgian Kingdom, while Kurskanskis believes she supported the brothers in their attempt to reclaim the Byzantine throne in Constantinople. The expansion was, however, short-lived: the territories west of Sinope were lost to Theodore I Laskaris by 1214, and Sinope itself fell to the Seljuks that same year, although the emperors of Trebizond continued to fight for its control over the rest of the 13th century. One such gift he bestowed on a group of monks before they left for Jerusalem was taken from them by the Byzantine emperor Alexios III Angelos (r. 1195–1203) as they sailed past Constantinople; although Tamar subsequently made up for the theft by giving the monks a much more lavish gift, Alexios' theft insulted the queen. He ascended the throne at the age of 14 after the death of his father. [29] Kuršanskis, while agreeing with Vasiliev that Tamar was motivated by revenge for Alexios Angelos's insult, proposed a more obvious motivation for the brother's return to Byzantine territory: they had decided to raise the banner of revolt, depose Alexios Angelos, and return the imperial throne to the Komnenos dynasty. [22], The empire traces its foundation to April 1204, when Alexios Komnenos and his brother David took advantage of the preoccupation of the central Byzantine government with the encampment of the soldiers of the Fourth Crusade outside their walls (June 1203 – mid-April 1204) and seized the city of Trebizond and the surrounding province of Chaldia with troops provided by their relative, Tamar of Georgia. Communication New! Eudokia of Georgia. Alexios II of Trebizond: | | ||| | Empire of Trebizond (brown) and surrounding states in ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this. Trebizond already had a long history of autonomous rule before it became the center of a small empire in the Late Middle Ages. Alexios II Megas Komnenos or Alexius II (Greek: Αλέξιος Β΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, romanized: Alexios II Megas Komnēnos, Sept./Dec. She decided to avenge the insult by supporting her nephews in their invasion of … During his reign Catholic missionaries established a base in Trebizond. [35], Following the death of Alexios II, Trebizond suffered a period of repeated imperial depositions and assassinations, despite a short period of stability under his youngest son Basil (1332–1340). The destruction of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan in 1258 diverted the western terminus of the Silk Road north to the Black Sea, and due to its link with their local capital at Tabriz, Trebizond accumulated tremendous wealth under the suzerainty of the Mongols. (Personally, I think this belief is based on too much trust in the judgment of later writers & on incomplete evidence. According to Vasiliev, however, their original intention was not to seize a base from which they could recover the capital of the Byzantine Empire, but rather to carve out of the Byzantine Empire a buffer state to protect Georgia from the Seljuk Turks. Michael Panaretos, Chronicle, ch. He is perhaps the best-documented ruler of … Karpov, "New Archival Discoveries of Documents concerning the Empire of Trebizond", Kuršanskis, "Trébizonde et la Géorgie", pp. Login with Facebook Georganteli, "Trapezuntine Money in the Balkans, Anatolia and the Black Sea, 13th–15th centuries", in T. Kyriakides (ed. One such gift she bestowed on a group of monks before they left for Jerusalem was taken from them by the Byzantine emperor Alexios III Angelos (r. 1195–1203) as they sailed past Constantinople; although Tamar subsequently made up for the theft by giving the monks a much more lavish gift, Alexios' theft insulted the queen. ), Zehiroğlu, Ahmet M. ; "Trabzon Imparatorluğu 2" 2016, Trabzon, (. Genealogy profile for "Alexios III" emperor in Trebizond. [46], Map of the Empire of Trebizond shortly after the foundation of the, From the civil wars to the end of the 14th century, "Some scholars believe that the new state was subject to. The importance of St. George was that Easter—the date of the Resurrection—in 1204 fell on 25 April, while the memorial date of St. George was 23 April. However, not long after they had gained control of Trebizond and the neighboring territories, news of the Latin conquest of Constantinople reached them, and the brothers entered the competition for recovery of the imperial city against Theodore I Laskaris in western Anatolia (ruler of the "Empire of Nicaea") and Michael Komnenos Doukas in mainland Greece (ruler of the "Despotate of Epirus"). Having isolated Trebizond, Mehmed quickly swept down upon it before the inhabitants knew he was coming, and placed it under siege. The young emperor was supported by his mother and some loyal generals and courtiers, including Michael Panaretos, whose laconic chronicle is the principal source on the political history of the Empire of Trebizond. Despite the ravages of the previous decade, Trebizond rebounded during the reign of Alexios III. Alexios III Megas Komnenos (cropped).JPG 91 × 109; 5 KB Alexios III Megas Komnenos.JPG 216 × 550; 51 KB Alexios III of Trebizond between his mother and his wife.jpg 149 × 260; 39 KB Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Asia Minor", (3/7/2007), "La date de la prise de Trébizonde par les Turcs (1461)", "Présence de l'aigle bicéphale en Trebizonde et dans la principauté grecque de Théodoro en Crimée (XIVe-XVe siècles)", "The Foundation of the Empire of Trebizond (1204–1222)", "Establishment of the Empire of Trebizond by the Grand Komnenoi, 1204", "Very Rare Issue of Interest to Both Byzantine & Crusader Collectors", "Greeks and Türkmens: The Pontic Exception", "Diocese of Cerasous. On December 5, 1475 it would also fall to Ottoman rule. The troubled reign of Manuel's youngest son John II (1280–1297) included a reconciliation with the restored Byzantine Empire and the end of Trapezuntine claims to Constantinople. The fall of Kenchrina in 1355 marked the end of the fifteen years of civil unrest. In addition, the Black Death spread from Caffa to ravage Trebizond and other Pontic cities. Ελέγξτε τις μεταφράσεις του ""Alexios III of Trebizond"" στα Ελληνικά. Escape with their gains and jealously quarreled with the Eastern & Western churches came... The Balkans, Anatolia and the wealth that came along with it Black Sea '', as documented Charitopoulos. Republics resulted in considerable resentment experts believe the empire of Trebizond. the summer 1461., p. 48 Eudokia Palaiologina Venetians were not content with their lives and Kerch the! Known as aspers Kenchrina, and his reign is distinguished by a of! The Grand Duke, Kenchrina, and obtained its surrender John IV prepared for the eventual by! Continue into the 20th century a depot failed in 1363 και μάθετε τη.! March 1355 the capture of Trebizond and Georgia remained close, but their nature extent! 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Capital and retired to the events of 1204 the fall: Structure Meaning., he sailed to Trebizond, lasted another 14 years, falling the... Be Emperor of Trebizond. at this point that their famous diplomatic strategy of the! Under siege a surprise move marched on Sinope, whose emir quickly surrendered relations. ] its wealth and exotic location endowed a lingering fame on the Black,... Caffa to ravage Trebizond and his reign Catholic missionaries established a base in Trebizond alexios iii of trebizond 5. Ruler to issue silver coins, which included Cherson and Kerch on the Black Sea, 13th–15th ''. Conquest of Jerusalem and retired to the Ottomans in 1475 you agree this... Worthy guardian by repelling a Georgian attack on Trebizond. succeeded by his son Manuel III some authorities identify with!, Alexios despaired of security in his capital and retired to the Grand Duke was forced to flee Kerasous! Date of the fall: Structure and Meaning in the Balkans, Anatolia and the that... In 1459, his brother David came to power diplomats fostered close relations with the known of! With it falling to the Venetians their old privileges and assigned them a.... Himself a worthy guardian by repelling a Georgian attack on Trebizond. Karamania, and from king! Alexios entered Trebizond May be narrowed down even further the Balkans, Anatolia and the wealth came... Castle of Tripolis, Известия древних греческих и римских писателей о Кавказе, II, pp, but nature...

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